Coping sexuality responsibly makes intercourse comfortable and safe, without fear and concerns to unwanted pregnancy O, in many cases most imporant, acquire STD.
Today, one of the contraceptive methods available is the oral contraceptive or what we call pill commonly.
There is on the market a wide range of tablets different compositions covering for each woman's individual needs. The most frecuene and is usually prescribed phase combination consisting of 21 tablets (O 28, if you include the week of placebo), each with the same dose of hormones. The combined contraceptive monophasic type containing two different types of hormones: estrogen and progestogen, and that is why they are called “combined”.
How do contraceptives in women?
Its mechanism of action is complex. The hormones are messengers who provide information to the body and are responsible for their proper function and development. Hormones, intended reproductive, also affect secondary sexual characteristics men and women differ. His action also spread to other systems and directly affect the skin, hair, bone and sexual libido.
In the case of women, hormones stimulate ovaries and these, in response, produce estrogen and progestogen that prepare the body for pregnancy during a fixed period or cycle.
The,es 14 occurs early days first half cycle and when the egg matures and is released into the fallopian tubes (some women have a feeling of tightness in the abdomen at this stage). In the second phase targets the mature egg into the womb and lasts until the egg to be expelled in case of non-fertilized (what we know as menstruation or have the rule).
While in the 1st phase, the ovaries produce estrogen, in the 2nd half of the cycle the egg is maturing and covered. This deck is transformed into a small gland called yellow corpus luteum and produces progestogen. We now understand, therefore, both hormones are necessary and contribute to the preparation of the female reproductive tract for a possible pregnancy.
Are they really effective in preventing unwanted pregnancies?
Por tanto, between different contraceptive methods to protect the woman from getting pregnant, oral contraceptives act by preventing the maturation of the egg. This implies that ovulation will occur. Turn, also modify the cap will rise from the uterus thicker dense, and so the sperm can not so easily climb into the uterus.
The regular administration of contraception provides an overall benefit 100%, giving total freedom to sexual life responsible.
Among the wide range available on the market, there are other tablets that its weight contraceptive action, have other indications due to its formulation and type of progestin used. These are known in the pharmaceutical field as “regulatory hormone” and are responsible for the aforementioned additional effects such as, eliminating fat and impurities from the skin and hair or action against acne.
Today, There difeentes hormone doses that aim to meet as much as possible to the need of women can tolerate it without problem and securely manage. Anyway, some women may result side effects, especially the first few months of use, while the body adapts to them. Reactions are usually low intensity and transient and do not justify the suspension of the birth but must be a reason for medical visit.
Benefits and adverse effects of hormone therapy
In summary, the contraceptives hormonal type are one of the most common methods of fertility control are considered as most effective method concerning rates of unwanted pregnancies and statistics. further, method, is easy to use, has a high tolerance and does not affect sex. As benefits, in combination contraceptives, include the low incidence of adverse effects and some improvement in some diseases. These aspects can be grouped in the following list:
- Regulate menstruation
- Prevent ovarian cysts
- Prevents endometrial cancer
- Prevent ovarian cancer
- Prevent fibrocystic breast disease
- Prevent the acute pelvic inflammatory disease
- Prevent osteoporosis induced fractures in postmenopausal stage
- Treat acne and regulate
- Treat perimenopause (transción period leading to menopause)
- Reduce dysmenorrhea
- Reduce HMB
- Reduce ectopic pregnancy
- Increase bone mineral density
The,es adverse effects, Although infrequent, usually mild depending on the degree of tolerance susceptbilidad and hormonal components. But thanks to the introduction of new specialties that offer dose smaller combined, this can be avoided and corrected.
Citation is required, notice and report adverse effects side effects that can occur when using a regular, and even in some cases point, oral contraceptives.
- Increased levels of estrogen: produce menorrhagia, nausea, vomiting, fluid retention, breast tenderness with pain.
- Increased levels of progestin: amenorrhea (no bleeding), acne, seborrhea, weight gain, reduced libido, irritability, depression and sometimes breast tenderness.
- Hypertension: Usually occurs in a junction and is linked to the amount of estrogen.
- Deep venous thromboembolism (TVP): The risk to suffer very little (0,005%) but may increase if obese, venous insufficiency or major surgery. Is linked to estrogen dose and it is curious that, appear as new generation contraceptive, The risk may be increased. Por ejemplo, if contraceptives are as progestogens levonorgestrel or norethindrone incidence passes a 0,015%. And if they bear in their composition as progestagens desogestrel or gestondeno, then the incidence increases 0,03%. It should be noted that these values are not quite alarming if we compare the incidence in pregnant women is 0,06%.
- Breast cancer: There are no studies that demonstrate a cause-effect relationship in women who take a long time taking oral contraceptives.
- Cervical cancer: In recent years, has been observed that the continued use of oral contraceptives may increase the risk for the disease;. It is convenient, make a prior gynecological checkup if she raises the continuous administration.
- Myocardial infarction: Oral contraceptives associated with other factors such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, smoking and age over 35 años, may increase the risk of heart attack and acute stroke, especially in women who have long active periods on the pill without a break. The risk is much lower for a given age if you stopped taking birth control years ago.
- Drug Interactions: Are the most common since there are many medications that can interact with oral contraceptives may even reduce the effect and cause unwanted pregnancies. Some of them are: antibiotics (Penicillin and derivatives, tetracyclines), rifampin, ritonavir, troglitazona, oral antifungal agents and anticonvulsants. One of the easiest to detect signs to know if the contraceptive is no longer effective is to see if there is intermenstrual bleeding, or, at the mid-.